It is impossible to imagine a return to school without the support of the 62,000 contract teachers, in particular in the secondary level. Their role is even crucial in certain academies, such as that of Créteil, where the department of Val-de-Marne has a quarter of non-tenured in its colleges and high schools. The situation is even more tense in Guyana and especially in Mayotte, where contract workers are in the majority (52%).
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Their mission? Fill the positions that remained vacant at the beginning of September and compensate for more or less short absences for illness, maternity, training… Contract workers are sometimes parachuted overnight, tens of kilometers from home, and generally without having received any training.
“You are just a pawn, a number, wandered right to left”, storm Barbara. This professor of letters on sick leave blames her burn-out “Institutional abuse” which, according to her, undermines contract workers. ” Last year, she says, I was assigned with incomplete services at two different colleges, with schedules that were not compatible. The rectorate left me alone to unravel the situation… ”
“We have largely crossed the red line of the poor worker! “
The blues of some of the contract workers is also due to their level of remuneration, which is logically lower – by around 20% – than that of the incumbents, who have obtained a competitive examination and for whom a higher level of education is required. In the absence of public-private parity in their salaries, financial conditions are even more scarce in Catholic education. “A full-time professor who would make his entire career as a contract worker would start at € 1,200 net monthly and end at € 1,500”, laments Yann Diraison, assistant to the secretary general of Catholic education. “We have largely crossed the red line of the poor worker! “
If we often talk about the precariousness of contract workers, it is also because many of them are recruited only part-time or on contracts that do not cover the whole year. “Last year, I had two parallel contracts, signed at the beginning and end of September, but which were stopped just before the end of the course so that the rectorate did not have to pay me during the holidays”, chokes Lola (1) who, after having scrapped for weeks, obtained the payment of leave for one of the positions occupied. “In the end, I lose 200 €”, she notes …
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The ministry, for its part, prefers to insist on the additional stability granted to certain contract workers. “Since 2017, we have increased the proportion of contract workers who benefit from a permanent contract from 8% to 25%”, he argues. A measure which the interested parties can claim after six years of education but which does not give the status of civil servant.
This advance does not prevent the LR senator of Pyrénées-Atlantiques Max Brisson from describing the army of contract workers as ” Cannon fodder “. For this aggregate of history, former inspector general of national education, “The state behaves towards its agents as it would never tolerate it from a private employer”.
Remain contractual to avoid mobility
“Without calling into question the competitions, guarantors of the republican meritocracy”, this right-wing parliamentarian demands “A contract worthy of the name, with reciprocal commitments”. Reform according to him all the more necessary since it is often not a question of a transitory statute, many contractual refusing to pass the capes or the aggregation. ” In the second degree, where the competition is national, many prefer to remain contractual in Bayonne rather than risk being affected, as is often the case for laureates, in Seine-Saint-Denis. “
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This is often true of second-career teachers, who provide students with their experience of the world of work. Also true of contract workers who have already founded a family, such as Sébastien, 50, professor of French-history-geography in professional high school. To be sure of staying in the academy of Nantes, this holder of a doctorate gave up again taking the exams, which he tried several times, “Without great conviction”.
From escape game to high school
Cedric, too, does not plan to take the exams. Whether he will still want to teach in a few years, he doesn’t know. Forced, during the second confinement, to temporarily close the escape game of which he is the manager, this thirty-something called the rectorate, returned an application file by email, benefited from a short interview with a school head … “Ten days after my phone call, I found myself on a post that had been vacant for three weeks, in front of first and final technological classes, after having given birth to management and management courses at short notice. Fortunately, I had worked a lot on these subjects when I was in business school ”, tells this Lorrain.
Since then, his escape game has reopened. Corn “The hours are complementary”, Cédric is determined to continue the teaching adventure in parallel and full time. It does not matter if he is still without news from the rectorate, he is convinced that we will not fail to offer him a contract, as the shortage of professors is great.
“Last year, to deal with the absences of professors linked to the Covid, the ministry authorized the hiring of 6,000 additional contract workers for the first degree but it came up against the weakness of the pool”, recalls Dorothée Crespin, in charge of the non-tenured file at SE-Unsa. Rue de Grenelle, it is argued that “The entire envelope has not been consumed because the needs turned out to be lower ”.
In the field, the vice-president of the FCPE in Seine-Saint-Denis Anne Pieter has in any case noted a “Aggravation” replacement difficulties. “The rectorate ended up hiring anyone, as long as the person has a sufficient level of diploma”, she assures.
The fastest way to get hired
One thing is certain: for lack of attractiveness, the teacher competitions do not allow all the positions offered to be filled, especially in disciplines in tension such as mathematics or German (156 positions out of 222 allocated to Capes, last year, in this discipline). And as soon as the results are published, the national education system solicits unsuccessful candidates or accepts their candidacies for replacement contracts.
“This does not necessarily make bad teachers, especially as some academies now provide real support by tutors, educational advisers or inspectors, and continuing education”, believes trade unionist Dorothée Crespin. “There is inevitably an impact on the quality of teaching”, contradicts Yann Diraison, of Catholic education. “And a contradiction in principle to say that the only possible and republican way remains the competition, when the fastest way to be hired is to miss it. “
Teach without obtaining a competition
No need for a competition to teach. It is possible to become contractual, for a renewable period of one year or less, full-time or part-time. This requires at least a license or exceptionally a bac + 2 (against a bac + 5 for holders).
One in ten middle and high school teachers. The contract workers represent 11% of the workforce in secondary education, 2.5% in primary education, where the replacements are generally tenured. The contract workers constitute a pool of 62,000 professors employing more than 37,000 full-time equivalents. A figure that has remained stable in recent years.
An unattractive salary. According to the SE-Unsa union, contract workers earn on average 20% less than incumbents.
No public-private pay parity. Substitutes in private education initially receive a net salary of € 1,200 per month for full-time work, which is often much less than their colleagues working in the public sector, where rectors can, in the event of a shortage, grant more remuneration. comfortable.