Signs of cervical cancer

The common signs of cervical cancer are vaginal bleeding, unusual discharge, pelvic pain, missed period …

Doctor Nguyen Thi Hien – Obstetrics Specialist, Medlatec General Hospital, said that cervical cancer ranked third in the group of cancer causing the highest death in women, after breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

The cervix is ​​a part of the uterus, where the vagina joins the uterus, is covered with a thin layer of tissue consisting of many cells. Cervical cancer is caused by the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in the cervix. The cells grow rapidly and create tumors in the cervix.

Most cervical cancer cases are caused by Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are many types of HPV, mainly HPV types 16, 18. The HPV virus can be spread from person to person through skin-to-skin contact, through sexual contact, including the vagina. , anal, oral or hand sex. The disease is also common in people who have many sex partners, have early sex (under 18 years old), give birth many times, have a family history of cancer, have some sexually transmitted diseases …

Cervical cancer usually develops in a dull over a long time, about a few years. During this time, cells in the cervix will change abnormally due to a change in the vaginal environment or from an HPV infection. The deformation of these cells that occurs before cancer appears is called dysplasia or inflammation of the cervical gland.

According to Dr. Hien, in the early stages, cancer cells only form on the surface layer, have not yet developed deep into the tissues, almost no symptoms, women cannot recognize they have the disease. if not

In the late stage, one of the most common signs is abnormal vaginal bleeding, which is vaginal bleeding on the days other than the menstrual cycle. The degree of vaginal bleeding can vary from woman to woman.

Other signs include an abnormal vaginal discharge with a large amount of white blood, changes in both nature, odor, and changes in color. Patient experiences pelvic and back pain. As the disease progresses, the pain will continue to spread down the leg and cause swelling in the legs. In some cases, the body leaks urine even when sneezing, with vigorous exercise, blood in the urine, severe pain when urinating … Menstrual delay, menstruation are long, menstrual blood is dark black, pain during sex …

Certain factors increase the risk of disease, increased ability to transfer normal cells to abnormal cells or cancer cells such as having sex with many people, early pregnancy or multiple pregnancies, smoking immunodeficiency …

Cervical cancer simulation. Image: Yeniloji

Dr Hien said cervical cancer is a dangerous disease, if not detected in time, it will have many serious consequences such as reduced ability to mother in women who have not had children, as well as serious effects. quality of life and sex life.

In fact, there are many cases of latent disease, even when there are no obvious manifestations, making patients subjective. When symptoms appear or are accidentally discovered, the disease is in a late stage, causing complications and low effectiveness of treatment.

Dr Hien recommends annual check-ups as the best way to prevent and detect disease early.

Pap Smear or Thin Prep should be tested every 3 years from 21 to 24 years. In middle age people (25-65 years) should have a Pap test and HPV test simultaneously every 5 years as recommended by the American Cancer Society. People over 65 years of age who have no abnormal cervical cells and negative Pap and HPV tests within the past 10 years can stop cancer screening. In addition to the above timelines, if any unusual manifestations appear, you should go to the hospital for immediate screening.

Thuy Quynh