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Presidential 2022: education, the duel of programs between Macron and Le Pen

► Marine Le Pen, an educational program under the sign of authority

“The teaching profession is also about making authority respected. » This sentence, pronounced at the end of March by Marine Le Pen in an interview with The cross, summarizes the orientation given by the RN candidate to her educational program. Determined to put an end to the culture of “no waves”, the RN candidate wants “to sanctuary” schools, with “minimum sanctions which must be applied during disciplinary councils under penalty of sanctions against the management of the establishments”. CCTV will be “widespread” in secondary school, she promises, while the parents of truant students or troublemakers will be deprived of family allowances.

“Marine Le Pen favors a repressive approach rather than wondering how to fight against school failure and dropping out to reduce violence, observes sociologist François Dubet. She also does not say what would happen to the fired students…” “Marine Le Pen’s educational program is authoritariananalyzes the former director general of school education Alain Boissinot. He is also backward. »

The far-right candidate thus intends, he argues, “make the patent the condition of a passage in general and technological high school, restore the baccalaureate before the Blanquer reform – without specifying how it solves the problems of orientation towards higher education – or even return to a simple training of teachers on the heap, by peers, once passed the competition ».

Programs drawn up by the ministry

If Marine Le Pen plans, over the duration of the five-year term, to increase their salaries by 15%, she also intends to further supervise the work of teachers. The inspection bodies, she argues, will see their powers increased to control the requirement of ideological, political and religious neutrality of teachers, with an obligation to report “problem cases”.

Another illustration: school curricula, the outline of which would be defined by Parliament, and no longer by the High Council for Curriculum. The ministry would then be responsible for drafting them in detail and then validating or not the manuals. “Unheard of in France. What brings us closer to the situation observed under certain authoritarian regimes”, comments Alain Boissinot. The former number two of national education wonders, moreover, “to what extent parliamentarians are competent to decide what should be taught in geometry or physics to 6th gradersand »

Marine Le Pen, who also wants to add a half-day of weekly lessons for schoolchildren, draws up a program “tinged with moral order and nostalgia”, resumes the researcher François Dubet: “She is aiming for a return to what she imagines to have been the school of the 1950s.”

An elitist vision

On certain points, his vision differs from that long defended by the FN. “Forget the hatred of public schools and the promotion of private education via the education voucher, which families would spend in the establishment of their choice”, notes the professor of education sciences Ismail Ferhat. Anxious to confirm her anchoring in the public service, Marine Le Pen does not attack unions head-on“even though she still considers that their representatives of the extreme left are poisoning the school, just like immigration”.

“Marine Le Pen, on the other hand, is still and always hostile to school massification”, continues this researcher. With the idea that the school is there to train an elite, while the base must benefit from a short, professional training. » For Ismail Ferhat, “the RN candidate also continues to focus on a small number of subjects (French, geography, history seen in the manner of a national novel) which she considers essential to form good patriots”.

→ FILE. Presidential 2022: Macron – Le Pen, compare their programs

► Emmanuel Macron, a project with liberal overtones

Emmanuel Macron inscribes his educational program in the continuity of his first five-year term. With a touch, however, of its flagship reform: the new high school. If he is re-elected, the outgoing president will reinstate maths in the common core in first and final year, as requested in particular by teachers, learned societies and a committee of experts.

For the rest, the LREM candidate reaffirms his liberal roots. “It puts forward the ideas of autonomy of establishments, spaces for experimentation, greater recognition of local actors”notes the former director general of school education Alain Boissinot.

“The speech gives an impression of continuity but if it were to translate into action, it would mark a relative break after the Blanquer paradox, who has never ceased to advocate trust in staff, while practicing management the most Jacobin that there is »notes the sociologist François Dubet.

A very controlled autonomy

The Head of State wishes to extend the principles recently tested in Marseille, where school principals can recruit their teachers outside the usual assignment system, mainly based on seniority. Attention, however, warns the entourage of the candidate: “This increased freedom is intended to be exercised within the national framework of programs and the education code. The director may ask to recruit for profile positions. If the academy accepts, he will be part of the commission responsible for interviewing the candidates. Under no circumstances will it be able to directly recruit its teachers or set their salaries. »

During his speech on March 17 in Aubervilliers (Seine-Saint-Denis), Emmanuel Macron promised that this increased autonomy would go hand in hand with “more transparency” in communicating the results of national assessments. What to highlight “pedagogical practices that lead to better results”, but also to arouse the fear of generalized competition between establishments. Again, his team tempers, evoking the creation of an indicator of added value for colleges, on the model of the existing comparison for high schools, which takes into account the ability to advance all students.

A “quite techno” approach

As noted by François Dubet, Emmanuel Macron “is largely inspired by what works abroad” in terms of the autonomy and presence of teachers in schools. This approach leads him to want to develop the profession, by assuming the principle of give and take. New recruits will be paid more (“no more starting a career under €2,000” per month, promised the Head of State during the debate between the two rounds), in exchange for new tasks, such as replacing absent colleagues or helping with homework.

Current teachers will benefit from a “right of option”, underlines his entourage. All will be increased, assured Emmanuel Macron during the televised duel. But ” we will very substantially upgrade, up to 20%, those who use the most innovative methods by allowing more freedom, in the field, to our teachers”. Half of the additional annual 12 billion euros promised for the school will be devoted to this upgrading.

→ READ. “We will increase their remuneration if…”: Emmanuel Macron wants to pay teachers on merit

Finally, Emmanuel Macron intends to bring the school closer to the company. Hence the announced creation of a new teaching from fifth to third, half a day per week devoted to digital, manual knowledge and the discovery of trades, with meetings of professionals. Similarly, the candidate wants to continue to develop learning, while vocational high school students, under school status, would carry out longer internships, now paid with state funding.

→ FIND Sunday at 8 p.m. the results of the 2nd round of the 2022 presidential election, municipality by municipality


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