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Monkeypox is spreading all over the world, but its speed is not as fast as Corona


Monkeypox Is Spreading: The World Health Organization (WHO) had issued a high alert on Saturday 23 July regarding monkeypox. In view of the increasing cases of monkeypox in the world, WHO declared a global health emergency. In India too, its cases are increasing continuously. Although this disease, which is spreading from animals to humans, is spreading, but like Kovid-19, its spread is not as fast. According to the WHO, this year 14,533 probable and laboratory-confirmed monkeypox cases have been reported from 72 countries till July 20. In the beginning of May, there has been an increase in its cases. In the beginning of May, there were 3,040 cases in 47 countries of the world. Concern about this disease is increasing after four cases have been reported in India too.

monkeypox in india

On Sunday, July 24, monkeypox infection has been confirmed in a 34-year-old man in Delhi’s capital Delhi. After this case came to the fore, four cases have been confirmed in the country. In the case of Delhi, no history of international travel of the infected person was found. With this, this is the first case of human-to-human spread of monkeypox locally in India. Earlier, in all the three cases found in Kerala, infected persons have returned from Gulf countries. This case comes just a day after the WHO declared the monkeypox outbreak as a global level of concern, declaring it as a public health emergency ie PHEIC. Significantly, this is the highest level of warning from WHO.

What does the announcement of PHEIC mean?

PHEIC means that there is a need to try together and unitedly to deal with any epidemic in the world. According to the WHO, “PHEIC is an exceptional event, which is declared on the increasing threats to human health in other states through the international spread of the disease. This especially potentially requires a coordinated international response.” ” In the midst of increasing cases around the world, the disease of monkeypox has spread even in areas where monkeypox was never detected before. According to the WHO, this year there have been 14,533 probable and laboratory-confirmed cases of monkeypox in 72 countries as of 20 July. In early May, the number of these cases started accelerating. During this 3,040 cases of monkeypox were reported in 47 countries. However, the number of deaths due to this disease is not so worrying. Monkeypox has killed three people in Nigeria and two in the Central African Republic. This disease of monkeypox was spread in these areas even before its outbreak.

Where did monkeypox first spread?

Monkeypox is not a new disease like Kovid-19, which appeared in 2019. The first infection of monkeypox occurred in 1970 in a nine-month-old baby in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most infections of this disease were initially spread through contact between humans and animals in rural and rainforest areas of the Congo Basin. Before its outbreak in the year 2022, cases of monkeypox were being reported in Central and West Africa. The first outbreak outside Africa occurred in 2003. Then there were more than 70 cases of monkeypox in the United States.

What do we know about the disease?

Monkeypox is a self-limiting viral infection with symptoms lasting 2-4 weeks. However, the ratio of mortality in this ranges from 0 to 11 percent. Its most common symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes called lymph glands. Along with this, rashes emerge in the body. They remain in the body for 2-3 weeks. Although mostly mild symptoms are seen in the patient, but it can also cause many problems and death in young children and people with weak immune system. These complications include pneumonia, secondary skin infections, sepsis, encephalitis and corneal infections. Infection of the cornea leads to blindness.

Are vaccines effective?

Monkeypox virus belongs to the orthopox virus family similar to smallpox. Although this virus has now been eradicated by vaccine. Orthopox viruses are cross-reactive, which means that existing smallpox vaccines and therapeutics can be used to treat mummiepox. However, in most cases, the disease of monkeypox is treated by looking at the symptoms. But an antiviral agent designed for smallpox, known as Tecovirimat, can be used to treat monkeypox. The US, which is facing 2,800 more cases of monkeypox, is using two smallpox vaccines to treat it. Two doses of Jynneos are allowed for adults, while the ACAM2000 vaccine uses a weakened form of a different live orthopox virus. It is being used to protect people coming to areas more prone to smallpox virus such as lab workers. According to the WHO, “The effect of the smallpox vaccine was studied through several studies on cases of monkeypox and found that it proves to be 85 percent effective in preventing monkeypox. In this way people who have been previously vaccinated against smallpox Monkeypox can have a minor effect on those people.” Significantly, the mass vaccination campaign against smallpox was stopped in 1980, as the disease was brought under control. According to Dr. Ekta Gupta, Professor of Virology at the Institute of Liver and Biliary Diseases, “Most of us who are in our 40s have been vaccinated against smallpox at birth. Because of this, such people may have a lower risk of contracting monkeypox. This is also bolstered by the cases reported so far. All four cases of monkeypox reported in India were patients aged 30 years or older. is less.”

Why are cases increasing now?

This infection spreads from animals to humans through direct contact with blood, bodily fluids or wounds of infected animals. Human-to-human, it can be either through large-scale respiratory secretions or it can be spread through contact with an infected person or his contaminated objects or wounds. According to Dr. Ekta Gupta, “However, unlike influenza or COVID-19, transmission of monkeypox through respiratory droplets requires prolonged face-to-face contact. This is usually only in the case of families and healthcare workers.” happens in.” He says that monkeypox is not going to spread like Kovid-19, so it is not likely to cause an outbreak like a Kovid epidemic. However, one of the reasons for its increase recently may be that the smallpox vaccine is not able to protect as much. This may be due to the decline in herd immunity from the smallpox vaccine. Herd immunity refers to the immunity of a large part of a community or group to a disease. Dr Gupta has stressed the need to investigate whether the COVID pandemic has affected the immune system in a way that makes people more vulnerable to other infections. In a few years, the transmission chain means the number of consecutive person-to-person infections has increased from six to nine. WHO’s monkeypox chief expert Dr Rosamund Lewis has appealed for research to see if there has been any change in the monkeypox virus. Because of this, its cases are increasing or due to the decrease in the number of people immunized against smallpox, more cases of monkeypox are coming.

Is monkeypox spread through sexual contact?

However, the WHO says that it is not clear whether monkeypox infection is transmitted through sexual relations. The current cases of monkeypox outbreaks that have been reported are all of gay or bisexual men. In such a situation, it is being investigated whether it can spread through sexual relations or not. A recent analysis of 528 individuals from London, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, shows that 98 per cent of those infected were gay or bisexual men and that transmission was through sexual relations in 95 per cent of cases. DNA from monkeypox was found in 29 of the 32 men whose semen was analyzed. Dr. Ekta Gupta says that it is not clear whether it spreads through sexual relations, but skin contact during sex can become the reason for this. Most of the patients who are vulnerable to this infection complain of sores in the genital.

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