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From the baccalaureate, a path to become a teacher

What does the preparatory course for teaching in schools consist of?

This system, which came into force this year, allows students to prepare for a specific career as a school teacher, while obtaining a disciplinary license. The training, open to high school graduates, takes place at two different sites.

Part of the lessons are taught in high school and focus on French and maths, as well as on all the other subjects that a primary school teacher will have to tackle in class: history-geography, science, modern languages, music, etc. physical education and sport… “Without forgetting a teaching dedicated to secularism and the values ​​of the Republic”, insists the Ministry of Education.

The other part of the course takes place at the university. It is a teaching backed by research and which leads to obtaining the license chosen by the student: maths, letters, educational sciences, sciences, plastic arts, etc.

The objective is that of a “Progressive professionalization (…) with practical observation internships and even an international mobility internship in the 3rd year of the license”, specifies the ministry.

Why deploy such a device?

The new preparatory course for teaching in schools, which is reminiscent of the spirit of the former teacher training colleges, responds to a widely shared observation: many new primary school teachers do not always master the “fundamentals” that they are. supposed to teach.

In 2018, the Villani-Torossian report established a direct link between the disastrous level of French students in math (bottom of the European class) and the lack of ease of many of our school teachers in this discipline. Likewise, with regard to language proficiency, there is a growing disparity between future teachers.

“To fill these gaps, rather than addressing faculty teachers who fall outside his remit, Jean-Michel Blanquer relies on the know-how of the teachers of the National Education, in particular those who already intervene in the preparatory classes “, decrypts Stéphane Crochet, general secretary of the SE-Unsa union.

What can we expect from this new route?

The condition for exercising, as an incumbent, the profession of school teacher remains unchanged: to have a master’s degree and to pass the competition. But those who embark on the new course rather than opting for a regular license will benefit, de facto, of a longer specific preparation, spread over five years.

A rather positive development, in the eyes of Stéphane Crochet. Because so far, he believes, “The very frequent trajectory consisting in preparing for a master’s degree in teaching, education and training (Meef) while passing its competitive examination left little time to consolidate its mastery of the various disciplines taught in the first degree” .

But it should not, he warns, that the young people engaged in the new course as soon as they leave the bac do not find themselves “Stuck” if it turns out that they ultimately don’t want to become teachers. Even though, on paper, they get in fine a disciplinary license. “Some managers of masters – selective training – could well say that, because of their specialized background, these candidates have not sufficiently worked on their discipline”, also warns the historian of education Claude Lelièvre.

“In any case, if he is extended, this system can help to fight the shortage of teachers by encouraging vocations earlier ”, continues Claude Lelièvre. At this stage, 24 courses are being tested in 22 academies, with 30 to 40 students per promotion.

Are there other initiatives to combat the shortage of teachers?

Since 2019, pre-professionalization has made it possible to discover the teaching profession from the second year of the license, with a three-year contract and remuneration which gradually climbs from around € 700 per month to almost € 1,000 and which can be combined with a bourse.

The students concerned gradually gain responsibility: observation, homework help, personalized support and then taking charge of complete teaching sequences. The time spent in establishments, in primary or secondary, cannot exceed 8 hours per week. A way of financially securing studies and giving a taste for teaching to young people who, perhaps, would have turned to another career after obtaining their master’s degree.


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