Tongue inflammation, rhabdomyolitis, map tongue, and malignant iron deficiency anemia are four common diseases of the tongue.
Doctor Tran Thi Hoang Mai, Faculty of Dentistry, Thu Duc District Hospital, said the tongue is a complex organ involved in pronunciation, chewing, swallowing as well as taste. The oral cavity along with the tongue is the most likely site of neoplastic (abnormal cell growth) lesions, reactive conditions, infections, and signs of systemic disease.
“Red and white lesions are characteristic signs of some common tongue problems,” said Dr. Mai.
Tongue inflammation: It refers to a red, smooth, and painful tongue. However, these three signs may not always appear at the same time. Tongue inflammation can be caused by a local condition of the tongue such as a fungal infection (rhabdomyolitis, atrophic Candida infection) or some systemic conditions, such as anemia, and vitamin B deficiency (especially B12).
Tongue inflammation due to iron deficiency anemia and malignancy (pernicious anaemia): Anemia, iron deficiency is the main cause of glossitis. The tongue is usually atrophic, smooth, and red, most common in women. Iron deficiency anemia is common with early symptoms of spine atrophy and fungal spine.
Tongue atrophy can begin on the tip of the tongue and on the edge of the tongue, then spread to the entire tongue surface. In addition, the patient had additional symptoms of dry skin, frizzy hair, split ends, and brittle fracture; The nails are concave, with stripes. Blood tests also clearly show anemia, iron deficiency.
Rhabdomyolitis: This is a special form of Candida infection, characterized by a red atrophic plaque in the midline of the tongue, at the anterior and posterior third-third junction. Rhabdomyolitis is common in adults and is usually asymptomatic, with few feeling pain or tongue ulcers.
The rhabdomyolitis manifests itself as red or pink papillae, sometimes white. Lesions are usually flat and slightly concave. In some cases there are nodules and epithelial hyperplasia. The disease can be treated with topical antifungal drugs.
Tongue map (benign migratory glossitis): Characterized by epithelial loss is spine, in some cases of unknown cause. The manifestation is irregular red blood areas surrounded by slightly protruding white thread bands. Red indicates atrophy of spines. The majority of patients have no symptoms. However, in some cases, there is pain, burning, sensitivity to food, and decreased taste in the atrophy of spines.
Tongue injuries are diverse, which can affect function and quality of life. Therefore, the doctor advises people to thoroughly clean their teeth and surface every day for early detection of tongue abnormalities. If there is an abnormality, the patient should go to the hospital for medical examination for the earliest treatment.