Health

Complications of the feet due to diabetes – VnExpress


Diabetic foot complications can lead to amputation, especially when wound infection or osteomyelitis occurs, so patients should pay attention to symptoms.

Diabetic foot complications (DFD) is the medical term for damage to the nerves caused by diabetes. Special categories such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary peripheral neuropathy patients were also included in the DFD. Patients with diabetic foot complications are also more likely to develop other diabetes-related complications such as kidney disease, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease.

Specialist Doctor II Vo Don – Department of Neurology, Tam Anh General Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, said that people with diabetes are prone to foot diseases due to nerve damage in the feet, making the legs feel no pain. and can easily lead to serious problems. Diabetic foot complications (DFD) have a higher incidence in men and in patients over 60 years of age.

Dr. Vo Don shared, the annual rate of diabetic foot complications in the world is estimated at 4-10%, of which 1-4% of patients have ulcers. The lifetime risk for the development of diabetic foot ulcers ranges from 15-25%.

Diabetic foot complications can lead to amputation. Photo: Shutterstock.

“Diabetes foot complications (DFD) is a common multifactorial complication. Understanding the various predisposing risk factors for the disease will help in both prevention and treatment. treatment,” added Dr. Vo Don.

The cause to the illness

Diabetic foot complications include a number of conditions, mainly diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease, leading to foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers can eventually lead to amputation, especially with wound infection or osteomyelitis.

Diabetic neuropathy: are peripheral nerve dysfunction in patients with diabetes, after excluding other possible causes of peripheral neuropathy.

When nerves are damaged, it can lead to peripheral numbness in the lower extremities, difficulty feeling sensation in the toes, discomfort, pain, or infection in the feet. This sensory disturbance can increase the risk of sores and blisters. If the infection is left untreated, the sores can develop gangrene, leading to amputation.

The risk of diabetic foot ulcers was increased sevenfold in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. According to Dr. Vo Don, it is estimated that between 45%-60% of all ulcers in diabetic patients are mainly due to neuropathy, while 45% of ulcers are due to neurological factors. and combined ischemia.

Peripheral vascular disease (PAD): PAD alters the body’s normal response to foot ulcers and leads to persistent foot ulcers that do not heal as the need for blood supply increases. PAD leads to progression of infection, increased tissue breakdown, hypoxia, nutrition, and antibiotics. All of these factors further contribute to the likelihood of a leg amputation.

Other factors and risks: sedentary joints; foot deformities and ulcers or previous amputations on the same side or side; visual impairment; old; chronic kidney disease; Persistent diabetes mellitus and uncontrolled hyperglycemia.

Complications signs

Depending on the specific problems that the patient is experiencing from time to time, the symptoms of diabetic foot can vary. But common symptoms that a person may experience include loss of sensation, numbness or tingling sensations, the appearance of painless blisters or other wounds, changes in skin color and temperature, red streaks, wound with or without discharge, stinging pain…

To prevent foot complications, patients should have regular check-ups and treatment according to the doctor's medication and dietary instructions.  Photo: Shutterstock.

To prevent foot complications, patients should have regular check-ups and treatment according to the doctor’s medication and dietary instructions. Photo: Shutterstock.

If an infection develops, the patient may also experience a number of signs, including fever, chills, uncontrolled blood sugar, shock, red extremities, Dr. If you experience symptoms of infection, especially in your feet, you must go to the hospital for urgent treatment.

Diabetic foot complications

Both type I and type II diabetes damage blood vessels and peripheral nerves, leading to serious, ongoing problems in the legs and feet such as foot ulcers or non-healing wounds; infections including skin infections, bone infections, and abscesses; gangrene, when the infection causes tissue death, deformity of the leg; Charcot’s foot, which changes the shape of the foot due to displacement or fracture of the metatarsal and toe bones; permanent physical changes due to gangrene; leg amputation…

Dr. Don recommends that people with diabetes of any kind should go to the hospital for regular check-ups by a doctor. If the patient develops the following symptoms, they should immediately go to the hospital such as change in skin color on the feet, swelling in the feet or ankles, change in temperature in the feet, persistent sores on the feet. , pain or tingling in the feet or ankles, ingrown toenails, tinea pedis or other fungal infections of the feet, dry, cracked skin on the heels, signs of infection…

Ngoc An

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