Health

9 highly heritable cancers


People with a family history of breast, ovarian, stomach, lung cancer… have the ability to inherit mutated genes, so they should actively screen and detect the disease early.

MSc.BS Bui Thi Nga, Department of Oncology, Tam Anh General Hospital in Hanoi, said that the root cause of cancer is genetic mutations, accounting for about 5-10%. These mutations can trigger precancerous cells to become cancerous or disrupt the function of tumor suppressor cells. As a result, abnormal cells are not repaired or eliminated, leading to cancer.

Inherited mutations caused by a parent carrying the disease gene and passing it on to their children. When a person inherits this type of gene mutation, there is a 50% chance of developing one (or more) cancers and many other inherited diseases. Most cancers are caused by acquired mutations – mutations that arise in everyday life. Although not all cancers are inherited, the 9 types of cancer below have a clear genetic predisposition.

Breast cancer: The Russian doctor cited epidemiological investigations showing that, if there is one person in the family with breast cancer, the risk of other members of the disease increases 3 times; If two people have breast cancer, the rate increases 7 times. In the family with many people with breast cancer, especially at a young age (under 50 years old), they are likely to carry inherited breast cancer gene mutations, the most common being BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations.






Cancer-causing gene mutations have a 50% chance of being inherited. Image: Shutterstock

Ovarian Cancer: According to a study by the University of Virginia Health System (USA), About 20-25% of epithelial ovarian cancers are related to genetic factors. A family history of ovarian cancer can be a warning sign of high risk in other female family members.

Colorectal cancer: Two common hereditary colorectal syndromes are familial polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer caused by inherited genetic mutations. These mutations not only increase the risk of gastrointestinal tumor formation, but can also cause tumors in many other organs such as pancreas, thyroid, endometrium, liver… Gene carriers help plan routine screening or preventive treatment.

Endometrial cancerAbout 5% of endometrial cancer cases are genetic and the age of onset in these patients is usually 10-20 years younger than the average age of endometrial cancer patients. sporadic supply.

Pancreatic Cancer: Follow Verywell Health, People with a family history of pancreatic cancer are also more likely to develop the disease. Inherited mutations of the BRCA1, BRCA2 genes are detected in about 13-19% of patients with familial pancreatic cancer.

Prostate cancerProstate cancer in two or more immediate family members increases the risk 5-11 times. According to the American Cancer Society, a single gene mutation can cause many different cancers in both sexes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are common genes that cause breast and ovarian cancer in women; increased risk of pancreatic and prostate cancer in men.

Lung cancer: According to case-control studies from the International Lung Cancer Society, people who have a first-degree relative (father, mother, brother, sister, child) with lung cancer have an increased risk of lung cancer by 1. .51 times that of people with no family history of lung cancer.

Thyroid Cancer: This is the most common endocrine gland cancer. The most common form of the disease is differentiated thyroid cancer. This type of disease has a good prognosis if treated correctly. Medullary thyroid cancer has a worse prognosis and is strongly heritable. The RET gene mutation that causes this disease is also the cause of other endocrine tumors such as adrenal medulloblastoma, parathyroid adenoma, neuroma in the lining of the lips, tongue, gastrointestinal tract…. According to the doctor. In Russia, all patients diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer should be assigned genetic testing for themselves and their family members.





A doctor examines a patient at the Oncology Department, Tam Anh General Hospital.  Photo: Provided by the hospital

A doctor examines a patient at the Oncology Department, Tam Anh General Hospital. Image: Hospital provides

Stomach cancer: Relatives of patients with stomach cancer are 2-3 times more likely to develop stomach cancer than other people. According to a study by Massachusetts General Hospital (USA), the heritability of stomach cancer accounts for about 1-3%. In which, the highest rate is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, which belongs to autosomal dominant inheritance.

The Russian doctor further shared, some genetic warning signs of cancer include two or more relatives with the same type of cancer, cancer occurring in many generations (grandfather, father, son), age diagnosed early, a person has more than one type of cancer at the same time, or cancer occurs in organs in pairs (such as two eyes, two kidneys, or two breasts),…

To prevent hereditary cancer, people with a family history of complex cancer predisposition should proactively screen early and periodically. For high-risk groups, genetic screening helps them promptly detect whether they carry a disease-causing gene or not and take appropriate treatment. Each person should build a habit of scientific living, eating in moderation, actively participating in sports, keeping an optimistic attitude to live a happy and healthy life.

Mai Linh

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